Sexual Assault Resources

Legal Tips to Protect Yourself.

Legal Disciplines

lawsuitEvery career or field has distinct disciplines within it, and the legal field is no
exception. These disciplines are specific areas of expertise in the field. Each
discipline has distinguishing features, theories and components that set it apart from
other disciplines. The following are some key and indispensable disciplines of the
legal profession.

Family Law
This discipline spans custody, child support and divorce cases. It includes pre-nuptial
agreements and post-nuptial agreements. Just like its name implies, family law is
concerned with couples, children and spouses.

Criminal Law
Criminal law is concerned with crimes ranging from driving under the influence of
drugs or alcohol to theft to murder.

Job or Employment Law
This is concerned with legal issues strictly related to employment. It includes
contracts, federal and state labour laws, employment lawsuits etc.

Injury, Health or Disability Law
This discipline is the most diverse area of law because it involves any accident or
injury, e.g. car accidents, defective products, medical malpractice etc.

Real Estate and Housing Law
This is concerned with legal matters involving property and real estate issues. It
includes real estate disputes, buying and selling of real estate properties, drafting of
real estate legal documents etc.

Wills, Trusts and Estate Law
Lawyers in this discipline create trusts, draft wills and can act as executors of their
clients’ wills by distributing properties. They can also represent clients who are
contesting a will or trust.

Business or Corporate Law
This is the area of law concerned with mergers, acquisitions or basic legal tasks such
as contract creation. Business or corporate lawyers are needed in the event of
starting a company, negotiating a business deal, filing a business lawsuit, giving
advice about the business law to clients.

Finance and Securities Law
This discipline is a subsection of Business or Corporate Law. It is focused on legal
issues regarding selling stocks, issuing money etc. Lawyers in this discipline are hired for representing clients against IRS (Internal Revenue Service) claims and filing a SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) complaint against a company.

Intellectual Property Law
This discipline has three sub disciplines under it namely Patent, Copyright and
Trademark. Intellectual property lawyers focus strictly on protecting intangible
property. They are divided into two groups. One group strictly protects the
intellectual property, and files paperwork to obtain the copyright, trademark or
patens. The other group of lawyers sue in the event of a copyright violation.

Immigration Law
Lawyers in this discipline assist individuals in securing visas for non-indigenous
acquaintances or family members. They help fill forms with the government on the
client’s behalf.

Bankruptcy Law
Bankruptcy lawyers focus on debts of their clients. They represent clients who are
seeking to get paid in a bankruptcy petition, as well as clients filing for personal or
business bankruptcy.

Tax Law
Tax lawyers help individuals and firms abide by federal and state laws regarding tax
return filings.

The knowledge of the various disciplines in the legal profession can come in handy
for law students seeking to specialize in a particular area. Clients seeking to hire
lawyers for a particular purpose can also use this information to select the type of
lawyer that suits their needs.

Parking Areas and Caveat Emptors

parkingEver walked into a bank and noticed various sign posts located in the parking area with
the inscription ‘Cars are parked at owners’ risk’? These warnings can even be found in
hotels, malls, supermarkets and at times, in churches and mosques! In plain terms, the
warning simply indicates that the owner of such institutions would not take
responsibility for any car theft that happens within the premises. In other words, if after
reading the warning, the car owner still decides to park his car in the facility’s parking
area, he and he alone is liable for the theft of his car while he is within the facility’s

Thus, one is prompted to ask the question: “What are the legal implications of this

  1. According to legal practitioners, this warning cleverly frees or acquits the owners of
    such institutions of liability or culpability in the event of car theft.
  2. It also serves as a kind of advice to car owners to provide adequate security for their

In law, this kind of warning is called a caveat emptor. It is similar to notices such as
‘Not for sale’ placed on lands or landed properties. Anyone who ignores such warnings
and goes ahead to invest in such lands or properties does so at his or her own risk.
Caveat emptors are notices that act as an alarm bell, warning unsuspecting or ignorant
buyers and vehicle owners as the case may be to beware and be careful. The term
‘caveat emptor’ is a Latin word meaning ‘let the buyer beware’.

However, if car thefts in a particular institution or facility has become a recurring
incident and there are irrefutable records to support this claim, then the owner of the
establishment can be held responsible because such reoccurrence definitely suggests
foul play.

Thus, it is essential that both vehicle owners and organizations incorporate extra
security measures regardless of the existence or absence of a caveat emptor. These
measures could include:

  1. 1. Use of cameras: Parking lots and other strategic places in the building should
    be fitted with close circuit television cameras for enhanced security coverage of the
  2. Security personnel should be watchful and vigilant.
  3. Tag System: Tags can be given at entry points to drivers, and at the exit
    points, the drivers return the tags. In this way, an individual without a tag would not be
    able to drive the car out of the premises. Some college campuses employ this method.
  4. Payment of token: This is similar to the tag system. However, this security measure involves the payment of a token fee in exchange for a receipt. Vehicle owners must present this receipt before they can be allowed to leave the premises. This method is used in large market areas.
  5. Have an efficient manual or automated car security system.

Cars can be stolen anywhere, either in offices, shopping areas or places of worship.
Thus, it is advisable to take proper precautionary measures in safe-guarding your car.